DESALINATION SYSTEM QUESTIONS
1.Q: What size pipe, pressure, and gallons per minute will be required to feed a 600,000 gallon per day water unit?
A: Eight-inch pipe with a flow rate of approximately 45,000 gallons per hour (1,000,000 gallons per day) operating at 90% capacity with a recovery rate of 70% equals approximately 630,000 gallons of desalinated seawater per day. Recovery rates are approximate and somewhat conservative.
2.Q: What is the maximum size particle in the feed water allowed?
A: Our system is capable if removing particles up to several millimeters. The first stage will be sand filters integrated to safely remove extraordinarily large particles should they be picked up. The sand filters will be periodically back flushed to remove these particles.
3.Q: Can you segregate by internal devices the power required
A: The ozone generation – advanced oxidation system will require approximately 5 kw. The pumps required to move water through sand filters and injection / infusion system will require approximately 7 kw. The pumps required to push water through ultrafiltration membranes will require approximately 10 kw. And the Reverse Osmosis pumps / system will require approximately 375 kw. There are some energy recapturing possibilities to be examined, but these are maximum numbers.
4.Q: What is the time to replacement of internal components?
A: Sand Filters, Ultrafiltration Membranes, Reverse Osmosis Membranes are installed, at a minimum in pairs, so the system can almost always operate while performing maintenance or replacing components. UF Membranes can be replaced in a few hours, RO membranes in a few hours apiece, totaling a few days for an entire system.
5.Q: Ozone generators must have a limited life expectancy.
What is it and is there a way of following the decline?
A: The life of an ozone generator is ten years at a minimum, likely lasting fifteen plus years, and it should have no decline leading to failure. Even at the fifteen plus years life, a failure would not be total and the only likely replacement would be of the internal components (electrodes). The air compressor will likely need to be replaced every five years.
6.Q: Membrane must also need to be purged periodically.
Is this a function of flow degradation or some other factor?
A: Flow degradation is the main factor and salt removal rates are degraded also, causing a slight amount of salt to be passed through the membrane. With the ARANA process, RO membranes life will be increased 6 to 10 times, and they should last three to five years between replacement.
7.Q: What is the approximate brine concentration being discarded and in 600,000 gallons produced how many gallons will be brine?
A: The approximate brine concentrate should be approximately three times the original concentration, so for seawater of approximately 32,000 ppm the concentrate will likely be 96,000 ppm.
8.Q: Has there been any work done to understand the negative effects of high concentration brine being discharged back into the ocean? Are there any world standards being considered?
A: Experts in Texas state that, with a reasonable current flow, brine concentrate is dispersed sufficiently to not create damage to ecosystem within 25 feet of the discharge point.
9.Q: If we in fact had a customer for dried brine salts is this something we could achieve with additional equipment?
A: We could develop a vacuum evaporization system for drying salts. This system would capture energy from the original desalination process, but additional energy would be required, approximately 1 megawatt. This would be approximately one third of energy normally required to evaporate water sufficiently to created dried salt in these volumes.
10.Q: Do you know if there is any work being done for precious metal extraction from high concentration brines?
A: It is possible but we would need to do some additional research, likely a type of ion exchange process…
11.Q: Will we need any additional tanks for the operation?
A: Not sure at this moment, but at first level of research, the viability of precious metal recovery is suspect. We will need additional time for research…
12.Q: Any location issues to be considered?
A: As long as the seawater can easily be delivered to the ARANA system and the concentrate can be comparably disposed of.
13.Q: What is the noise level of the equipment at full operational level?
A: The noise level at full operational level will be 65 decibels.
14.Q: Can you foresee what the maintenance costs will be?
A: Maintenance costs will likely be for an anti-scalant to best maintain the RO membranes, and routine maintenance on the system, total estimated at approximately thirty cents per thousand gallons.
15.Q: Has any work been done around failure analysis for this equipment?
A: The ARANA patented ozone generator has operated for fifteen years plus, on average, without failure. Pumps, membranes, etc. are standard items that are easily replaceable.
16.Q: Considering that we have most replacements in house, what would
be the longest shutdown for any part failure
A: We will have spares of all aspects of this system, so the worst case scenario would be a maximum two to three days, and it would take a “perfect storm” of events for this to happen.
17.Q: Is there any situation which would be considered catastrophic?
A: A typhoon or tsunami to wipe out the facility, and ARANA would need three to four months to rebuild an entirely new system, assuming infrastructure could be concurrently constructed.
18.Q: Do you suggest a large storage facility for potable water to act as a buffer for problems?
A: It wouldn’t hurt, but the catastrophic event would likely cause the buffer facility to be damaged or destroyed also. ARANA could construct a portable, emergency system to be located elsewhere that could be delivered within a few days for emergency water creation.